Dynamic mechanical characterization of soft materials is essential in many industrial fields for both R&D and quality control (QC) applications. In polymer chemistry, this information plays a major role to formulate and standardize elastomeric materials and to target high-level viscoelastic performances.
High-frequency viscoelasticity of complex materials
Similarly, dynamic mechanical behavior of biological materials plays an important role in many biomedical applications. For example, understanding the relation between external forces (e.g. vehicle accidents, ballistic impacts, sports-related impacts) and traumatic brain injury caused by propagative shear waves is crucial for the development of efficient brain injury prevention systems.
Current technologies are limited to low and
Currently, mechanical testing instruments such as rheometers, dynamic mechanical analysers (DMA) or indentation systems are limited to measuring viscoelasticity in a frequency range typically below 200 Hz. This is a major limitation in several fields were dynamic loads and waves operate the kilohertz (kHz) frequency range.
RheoSpectrisTM C500+ measures viscoelasticity
As a response of this need Rheolution Inc. commercialises RheoSpectrisTM C500+, the first analytical instrument that measures viscoelastic properties of soft materials up to 2,000 Hz. RheoSpectrisTM C500+ performs hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy of materials using a new technology based on the shear wave induction of resonances (SWIR) of samples. The multiple sample holders of the instrument make easy the characterization of a wide range of materials having different geometrical shapes.
|Min||10 Hz (62.8 rad/s)|
|Max||1500 Hz (9424.8 rad/s)*|
|Max (full frequency range)||< 1 second|
|Cylinder||Diameter 10 mm
Length 80 mm
|Slice||Thickness < 12 mm
Width < 40 mm
Length < 40 mm
|Beam - double cantilever||Height (or diameter) < 4 mm
Width (or diameter) < 4 mm
Length 10 mm - 70 mm
|Beam - single cantilever||Thikness (or diameter) < 2 mm
Width (or diameter) < 2 mm
Length < 40 mm
|Disk||Conformed diameter 15 mm or 20 mm
Thickness < 1.5 mm
|Min (# of samples)||1|
|Max (# of samples)||4**|
|Instrument dimensions||170 cm x 70 cm x 76 cm|
|Instrument weight||175 kg|
|Min temperature||Room temperature|
|Heating speed and stability|
|Maximum heating speed||70°C/minute|
|Temperature stability||< 1%|
|Temperature homogeneity||< 3%|
|Full automatic control||RheoView TM functionalities
Programmable time profiles
Power Law Behavior of Shear Waves Measured in Swine Liver. Grosz S. A., Pereira R., Bannon N. A., Urban M. W. and McGough R. J., IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), Glasgow, UK, 2019.
Rolling Resistance of a Hard Sphere on Rubber Sheets: Limitations of Linear Viscoelastic Modeling and Influence of Nonlinearities. Zéhil G.-P. and Gavin H. P., International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 11(07):1950066, 2019.
Measured power law attenuation of shear waves in swine liver. Grosz S. A., Pereira R., Urban M. W. and McGough R. J., The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 145(3):1861, 2019.
Measured Fractional Calculus Parameters for Shear Waves in Swine Liver. Grosz S. A., Pereira R., Urban M. W., Humphrey T. and McGough R. J., IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), Kobe, Japan, 2018.
Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Creep–Recovery (ARFICR): A Noninvasive Method to Characterize Tissue Viscoelasticity. Amador Carrascal C., Chen S., Urban M. W. and Greenleaf J. F., IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 65(1):3-13, 2018.
Acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography of coagulating blood: theoretical viscoelasticity modeling and ex vivo experimentation. Bhatt M., Montagnon E., Destrempes F., Chayer B., Kazemirad S. and Cloutrier G., Physics in Medicine and Biology, 63(6), 2018.
Elasticity Measurements by Shear Wave Elastography: Comparison and Selection of Shear Wave, Rayleigh Wave amd Lamb Wave Theory. Xu H., Mo J.-Q., Chen S., An K.-N. and Luo Z.-P., Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 17(8):1750119-1-1750119-12, 2017.
Biomechanical characterization of ex vivo human brain using ultrasound shear wave spectroscopy. Nicolas E., Callé S., Nicolle S., Mitton D. and Remenierasa J.-P., Ultrasonics, 84:119-125, 2018.
High-Resolution Elastography for Thin-Layer Mechanical Characterization: Toward Skin Investigation. Chartier C., Mofid Y., Bastard C., Miette V., Maruani A., Machet L. and Ossant F., Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 43(3):670-681, 2017.
Quantitative 3D magnetic resonance elastography: Comparison with dynamic mechanical analysis. Arunachalam S. P., Rossman P. J., Arani A., Lake D. S., Glaser K. J., Trzasko J. D., Manduca A., McGee K. P., Ehman R.L. and Araoz P.A., Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 10.1002, 2016.
In vivo, high-frequency three-dimensional cardiac MR elastography: Feasibility in normal volunteers. Arani A., Glaser K.L., Arunachalam S.P., Rossman P.J., Lake D.S., Trzasko J.D., Manduca A., McGee K.P., Ehman R.L., Araoz P.A., Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 10.1002, 2016.
Quantification of regional aortic stiffness using MR elastography: A phantom and ex-vivo porcine aorta study. Zhang N., Chen J., Yin M., Glaser K.J., Ehman R.L., Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 34(2):91-96, 2016.
Contribution to interplay between a delamination test and a sensory analysis of mid-range lipsticks. Richard C., Tillé-Salmon B., Mofid Y., International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 38(1):100-108, 2016.
Viscoelastic shear properties of in vivo thigh muscles measured by MR elastography. Chakouch M.K., Pouletaut P., Charleux F., Bensamoun S.F. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 10.1002, 2015.
Viscoelastic tissue mimicking phantom validation study with shear wave elasticity imaging and viscoelastic spectroscopy. Amador C., Kinnick R.R., Urban M.W., Fatemi M., Greenleaf J.F. IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (UFFC) joint symposia, Taipei, Taiwan, 2015.
Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard? Oudry J., Lynch T., Vappou J., Sandrin L., Miette V. Phys Med Biol., 59(19):5775-5793, 2014.
Rheological assessment of a polymeric spherical structure using a three-dimensional shear wave scattering model in dynamic spectroscopy elastography. Montagnon E., Hadj Henni A., Schmitt C., Cloutier G. IEEE Trans Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control., 61 (2): 277-87, 2014.
Investigation of gold standard phantom and measurement technique to estimate elastic properties in elastography. Oudry J., Lynch T., Vappou J., Sandrin S., Miette V. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Lingfield, U.K., 2013.
Shear wave dispersion measurements on tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex-vivo human brain. Nicolas E., Callé S., Ternifi R., Simon E., Remenieras J.P. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Lingfield, U.K., 2013.
Dynamic elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy of a liver mimicking phantom. Tang A., Montagnon E., Schmitt C., Hadj Henni A., Olivié D., Castel H., Cloutier G. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Lingfield, U.K., 2013.
RSNA/QIBA : Ultrasound shear wave speed elastic phantom results. Milkowski A., Hall T.J., Garra B.S. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Lingfield, U.K., 2013.
RSNA/QIBA: Shear wave speed as a biomarker for liver fibrosis staging. Hall T., Milkowski A., Garra B., Carson P., Palmeri M., Nightingale K., et al. IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (UFFC) joint symposia, Prague, Czech Replublic, 2013.
Correlations Between Quantitative MR Imaging Properties and Viscoelastic Material of Agarose. Gel. E.D. Chin, J. Ma, C.L. Lee, Jara H.J. SEM Annual Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Lombard, USA, 2013.
Shear wave induced resonance elastography of venous thrombi: A proof-of-concept. Schmitt C., Montagnon E., Hadj Henni A., Qi S., Cloutier G. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 32 (3): 565-577, 2013.
Shear wave propagation modulates quantitative ultrasound K-distribution echo envelope model statistics in homogeneous viscoelastic phantoms. Alavi M., Destrempes F., Schmitt C., Montagnon E., Cloutier G. IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (UFFC) joint symposia, Dresden, Germany, 2012.
Hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy of a vascular-mimicking phantom and a porcine aorta with the RheoSpectris instrument. Schmitt C., Hadj Henni A., LeFloc’h S., Ohayon J., Vappou J., Cloutier G. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Deauville, France, 2012.
Rheological study of polymer sphere using a 3-D shear wave scattering model in dynamic elastography. Montagnon E., Hadj-Henni A., Schmitt C., Cloutier G. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Deauville, France, 2012.
Hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy of biomaterials. Hadj Henni A., Schmitt C., Tremblay MÉ., Hamdine M., Heuzey MC., Carreau P., Cloutier G. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 4(7):1115-22, 2011.
Hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy of biomaterials. Hadj Henni A., Schmitt C., Tremblay MÉ., Hamdine M., Heuzey M.C., Carreau P, Cloutier G. 4th International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues, Hawaii, U.S.A, 2011.
A novel instrument for the viscoelastic spectroscopy of biomaterials and tissue mimicking materials from 10 to 1000 Hz. Schmitt C., Hadj Henni A., Tremblay MÉ., Hamdine M., Heuzey MC., Carreau PJ., Cloutier G. International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Snowbird, U.S.A, 2010.
Ergonomy & Simplicity
RheoViewTM is the user interface software that operates RheoSpectrisTM C500+. It is a user-oriented software designed to simplify the use of the instrument for non-experts in mechanics and rheology. It allows:
Rapid Setting of Experiments
Selection of parameters such as: frequency range of measurement, frequency step, measurement temperature, sample’s geometry.
Dimensions of the Sample
Sample dimensions are flexible and may change depending on the available volume and shape of the sample. This is especially interesting for testing of biological tissues.
Number of Measurements
Selecting number of measurements (repetition) for a single sample simplify analysis of data. It’s also possible to build and repeat a sequence of multiple measurements.
Custom Thermal History
Building and applying complex thermal histories with user-defined temperature ramps to study the thermo-viscoelastic behavior of materials.
Data Visualization & Comparison
Visualizing and comparing multiple data sets with various tabs. A 3D display feature can be used to analyze parametric measurements.
This set of functions allows user to operate analysis in the same environment, to save data and to load archived tests.
Exporting test results in Excel format.
Technology of RheospectrisTM C500+
RheoSpectrisTM C500+ is an analytical instrument that non-destructively characterizes the viscoelastic properties (complex shear or Young moduli) of materials over a large frequency domain ranging between 10 and 2,000 Hz. The instrument uses a new technology called Shear Wave Induced Resonances. The sample may be confined into one of the following rigid sample holders: cylindrical, beam, slice or disk. Once the material sample is confined and fixed to the selected sample holder, this later is firmly attached to a mechanical unit that acts as a controlled dynamic actuator. When a test starts, the actuator vibrates vertically in order to transmit dynamic oscillations to the sample through the rigid sample holder. The excitation covers automatically the whole frequency range the user wants to explore.
An optical probe is used in RheoSpectrisTM C500+ to measure the sample’s response to the dynamic stimulus. The automatic positioning system rapidly and precisely focuses the measurement point. The sample’s response (i.e. its displacement as a consequence of the dynamic stimulus) will depends on its viscoelastic properties.
RheoSpectrisTM C500+ measures the shear complex modulus when a material is confined into the cylindrical or slice sample holders, while the beam and disk holders allow for the direct measurement of the Young complex modulus.